Borrowing elements from EdT, B_Munro and others, this world is locked in the grip of a cold war. Technology is broadly similar to that in OTL during the same period, and attitudes aren’t too far removed either.
The PoD is back during the later-19th century, with a more successful Germany, Spain and Austrian Empire, each of which had more expansive empires than IOTL. There was a WWI-type thing, between Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empireand Romania on one side, and France, Russia, Italy, Belgium and a few others on the other. Britain did an America and only joined in later after Russia was forced to the table, and the US stayed out entirely. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire imploded, prompting Britain and France to swoop in to grab as much as they could, while Turkey was turned into a de facto German satellite.
However, victory for the Central Powers came at a terrible cost. Revolution erupted in Berlin, Munich, Vienna and Budapest, spreading outwards. The Kaiser and Austrian Emperor were deposed, and, eventually, the European Federated Social Republics was founded in July 1920. Formed from Germany, it also absorbed Austria, Bohemia, Poland and Galicia into itself, merging the last two together, and making Bohemia an autonomous member republic, while the rest of the Austrian. Eventually, as the revolution spread, the United Baltic Duchy succumbed, and joined in 1922.
As more of Europe, and later, large parts of the world, became red, the *League of Nations – founded after the *Great War – bound together more tightly to counter it.
Now, more than fifty years later, the world is divided into two camps, the League of Nations, and the League of International Socialist States.
We shall begin with the League of Nations. Though publically espousing things like freedom, democracy, and mother’s baked desert of one’s choice, in reality the main thing that they can agree on is that they do not like the Reds. Well, most of them, and at least most of the time. When they can be bothered…
The LoN has a security-council type arrangement, comprised of the Big Three permanent members – Britain, Japan and the US (there aren’t enough member states to warrant more) – and four non-permanent members, which rotate on a yearly basis. Unlike the UK and Japan, though, the US is more worried about its profit margins than the “reds under the bed”.
Publically first amongst equals, the British Commonwealth is the most powerful bloc within the League. It has formed a big free trade zone and military alliance, with a Commonwealth Congress in London (which is mostly an extension of things like the Imperial Conferences in Ottawa from OTL). There are lots of dominions; including the more familiar ones, they also include places like East Africa, the Deccan, the Gold Coast, Indus and so on. There are also a lot of republican members, which stick around for the investment money and, particularly for the likes of Bengal and Konkan, as protection from local socialist revolutionaries.
Japan has also done remarkably well for itself. Unlike IOTL, there was no breaking of Anglo-Japanese relations, and the two blocs cooperate in their efforts to contain the Red Menace. Corea is a dominion-type thing since 1954, and it and the various Japanese allies have formed the shiny-happy *Co-Prosperity Sphere (and if you’ll believe that, I have some nice swampland to sell you).
The French Fourth Republic (the African bit) was formed following the French Revolution of the early 1930s, when the mostly right-wing government was forced to flee to Algiers. Eventually, they formed a federation from the contiguous French colonies – though Muslims and Jews are treated mostly equally, the blacks are heavily “encouraged” to become dark-skinned Frenchmen and –women. At the moment, things are looking rather shaky due to persistent socialist activity in West Africa, so Britain throws plenty of arms and money to the French government to ensure that it stays in power. However, it did have to let Indochina go due to lack of power projection, lest it wrest itself go thanks to revolution.
The Balkan League is united only by their burning hatred of the LISS– theycan (supposedly) all see Russia from their respective houses. All four members had large socialist insurgencies during the ’30s, which might have succeeded, if it wasn’t for those meddling Brits, and their dumb dog, too. Greece is annoyed at the fact that the straits (at the UK’s insistence) are a LoN mandate (and thus under de facto British administration) and not part of Greece, there are grumblings about the Dobruja region between Romania and Bulgaria, and Montenegro is the club’s resident whiny kid – though it is hemmed in on three sides by socialist states. They are also rather narked at the fact that the Commonwealth and Japanese are more concerned about containing the LISS and not driving them back – clearly all those nukes pointed at them aren’t working at shutting them up.
The Low Countries are in a similar pickle. The Dutch and Belgian Revolutions were both instigated by the EFSR rather than the home-grown one in France. The Belgian forces in the Congo were found to have committed such horrible atrocities during their rule of it that the Free State was resurrected and placed under American protection. The Dutch East Indies, however, splintered – reds took control of Java, Borneo, Sulawesi and most of the smaller islands, though Sumatra and Aceh both became independent thanks to British and Japanese aid respectively, while the eastern islands remained loyal to the Dutch government in exile, again thanks to Anglo-Japanese aid.
The Spanish also have a government in exile, based in Havana. The Philippines wanted none of the revolution, which was crushed quickly with help from British-made arms smuggled in via Malaya, and have become a de facto dominion. They are currently trying to out-bid Portugal to be Britain’s favourite Little Buddy™, mostly to stop the more expansionist American groups looking at them like that…
The Italian revolution was more like a civil war. Much of the north fell to the socialists, including Rome, though the monarchists held the line in the south. Eventually, a treaty was signed, dividing the Peninsula between the two sides, while Sicily and Sardinia stayed with the monarchists (who are, at least, content with being the UK’s #3 favourite Little Buddy). Abyssinia, though, was a different matter – native forces in the south banded together to overthrow the Italians, though they eventually fell out, with the reds taking power. While this was happening, the monarchists consolidated their control over the north, having the sense to cut Italian Somaliland loose as a lost cause. Libya had its own socialist revolution, and became independent separately.
There are also several more members of the LoN who are very much anti-LISS, and thank you very much for all that money Mr Britain and Japan-san. Transcaucasia, Turkestan, Sumatra, Nepal and Morocco all kiss the Commonwealth’s backside to make sure that the reds stay under the bed and not in power (the Russian Free State kisses Japan’s), while the other states have pockets lined with pounds, dollars and yen to keep saying “down with the LISS” every so often.
The Balkan League, monarchist Italy, Alaska and, to a lesser extent, Portugal, are all Spartacist (fascist) states. This isn’t quite the same as OTL fascism, though – invented by Georgiou Dukakis, previous Prime Minister of Greece, it is still fervently nationalist and rather nasty. Portugal is rather less nasty – unlike the Balkan states, it hasn’t banned left-wing parties outright (only the communist ones), along with all trade unions (though they do require government authorisation). The pro-Spanish government in the Philippines is quite similar to the Spartacist-lite of Portugal, as is the Dutch government in the East Indies, though the latter is more of a traditional junta, not unlike the Peronists of OTL Chile. The Russian Free State is also heavily controlled by its military, though it has a democratically elected (if weak) legislature.
On the other hand, the members of the British Commonwealth all have major left-wing parties (all of them attend the *Second International), all of which have publically distanced themselves from the LISS parties (who attend the *Third International).They also have comparatively little restraint on its trade unions, beyond what Thatcher did IOTL. Both Japan and Core have an “approved trade union” policy, like Portugal (though less heavy-handed), and similarly have no major restrictions on Second International-aligned parties, though that’s mostly because they have very little in the way of seats in the Japanese or Corean parliaments.
Then there is the United States, whose business is business, and would very much like it if everyone could sit around the table and be civil to each other, whilst buying American-made goods, drinking coffee and talking about the cricket scores. The US has its own sphere of influence (read groupies), who are all trying to cosy up to one of the big boys, though one that won’t habitually get them in danger of turned into radioactive glass at a moment’s notice.
Next we come to the LISS. Not quite equivalent to the Warsaw Pact of OTL, the EFRS is rather less control-freak-y than the USSR. While, it does dominate Eastern Europe from the halls of Berlin, the rest of its allies have a decent amount of freedom of movement. Similarly to the FWR of Fight and be Right!, the federation also includes Germany’s African colonies as full members – Tsingtao, New Guinea, the Marshal Islands and Nauru are all mandates, the last three run by Australia. The LISS is a mixture of Sorelian, *Socialist-Revolutionaryand Syndicalist states, so they don’t always see eye-to-eye on everything. It also, oddly enough, has a decent taste in architecture (think a combination of art deco and art nouveau), unlike in OTL, with their obsession with the affrontagainstall that is beautiful – brutalism.
There was no Mussolini ITTL, though his equivalent is the Dictator of the Italian Democratic Republic. *Fascism ITTL is a distinctlyItalian brand of the international socialist movements, a mixture of Sorelianism, heavy doses of Syndicalism, lots of Classicist Romanticism, with Machiavelli’s Prince and Art of War thrown in for good measure.
Russia also succumbed to the revolution ITTL, though much later (and is Sorelian rather than Bolshevik). Several bits were carved off during the *Russian Civil War by the LoN pumping money and guns to local warlords, who eventually created their own states. The Tsar lives in Alaska, and his government is trying to reunify with the Russian Free State in the Far East, though the two cannot agree on how that should happen or what part the Tsar should have (if any) in the new state.
There have been plans to incorporate the adjacent satellite states into the EFRS, though none of them have been taken so seriously until recently – there are signs of a Russo-European split developing, especially with the Russian nuclear arsenal getting really big now, and eventually the states within the LISS are going to have to take sides.
Socialist France is a peculiar place. The government is rather resentful of (a) the British (and Japanese) making sure that the whole colonial empire remained outside its control, and (b) German funding and arms to make sure that it stays in power. Socialist Spain is a little less resentful, and rather more democratic – there are centrist parties that are actually allowed to stand for election (nothing further to the right, though).
Turkey, Iran and the Levant are all relatively recent additions to the LISS. They all had their revolutions in the mid-50s – the LoN really dropped the ball on that one. However, they are all happy to trade with Japan and the Commonwealth (and the Americans) under the table, unlike their previous governments, so not much harm done there…
The Chinese situation is…interesting (if you’ll excuse the phrase). The *civil war was never really resolved ITTL. Instead, there are a number of broadly functional warlord states supported by different powers. The governments of Tibet, Szechwan and Yunnan have their pockets lined by the British to remain at least non-red, while the Uighurs have theirs lined by the Europeans and Russians to stay away from those nasty, horrible LoN people, who want to throw them to the Japanese baby-eaters. Feng Yu-hsiang accepted Japanese support to avoid being overthrown by rampaging hordes of socialists (which still plague the region), while the Chinese Emperor is often lampooned in the Western (LoN and LISS) press as the Japanese Emperor’s lapdog. The KMT aren’t really any more socialist than the Nazi party was (the equivalent to the OTL Communists are only a minor member of the ruling perma-coalition), but do like having palms greased with Volksmarks to ensure that that Japanese don’t eat them while they sleep (or so they say. Japan isn’t that interested in grabbing all of China – too much of a headache).
The likes of Mexico, Brazil, etc. pay lip-service to the LISS, though having all voted in their socialist governments (who all forgot to leave, but hey) rather than having revolutions, aren’t too enthusiastic to dancing to Berlin’s tune. They also openly trade with the LoN nations, which also ruffles a few feathers in the LISS conference halls.
India was once a big dominion, but (not unlike in A Greater Britain) it soon fell apart, though the big bit in the middle went socialist rather than fascist. The other British holdings in the region remained within the Commonwealth, even after Bengal and Burma became republics, soon followed by Assam and Konkan. The rest of the South Asian dominions are mostly happy with their current relationships, though there are small republican movements in all three of them.
Poor Scandinavia – so far from God, and so close to the LISS. The whole area has been Finlandised out of fear of being gobbled up by the big boys; Denmark especially holds up a big sign saying “we are neutral, ok!” Fortunately, the EFSR have mostly given up on trying to spread the revolution northwards, though the Scandinavian countries are all reasonably lefy, and don’t try to suppress their Nordic Left parties or trade unions too much.
Arabia is divided between the Hashemites in both the Sultanate of Damascus and in the Kingdom of Iraq, the formerly French Republic of the Levant (now red), various British Commonwealth members (including the tiny little Israel).
There are also nukes everywhere, though (hopefully) they will never be used. Though you never know, as the situation in China is threatening to boil over.
 South Africa is still a dominion ITTL, for the traditional AH.com-ish reason of there being more territory. However, though there isn’t any official policy of Apartheid, each member province of the *Union of South Africa can set its own laws in regards to property ownership and voting qualifications, which have placated the Boers a bit. Similarly, Ireland is still a dominion due to a much better handling of home rule, since the UK entered the *Great War at a much later stage than it did IOTL.
 TTL’s equivalent to the Balfour Declaration was just a vague promise of “a homeland for the Jews”, with no mention of Palestine in there. However, there is an *Israel ITTL also, more on which later.
 A name for the coastal region of India’s Maharashtra province.
 Cricket remained popular in the USA ITTL – about as much as baseball is IOTL. Indeed, baseball is widely considered to be a kid’s game in the US ITTL, but is also fairly well played in the whiter parts of the British Commonwealth.
 Basically “Hulk smash, Hulk instigate global revolution”, if rather over-simplified.
 Again, see A Greater Britain. Palestine was a British mandate ITTL also, but it was cut up when the government decided that it wasn’t really viable to have a two state solution, giving the rest to the Hashemites.